The Prohibited List contains the prohibited substances and methods, which is a cornerstone of the World Anti-Doping Code.
- The List is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
- The updated Prohibited List is effective from 1st January each year.
- The Summary of Major Modifications provides an overview of changes compared to the 2021 List.
- Certain substances are placed on a monitoring programme – these are not on the Prohibited List, but WADA wishes to monitor their use to detect potential patterns of misuse in sport.
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Principle of Strict Liability
- An athlete is strictly liable for the substances found in his/her sample – an anti-doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites/markers) is found in a sample, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.
- The athlete has the possibility to avoid or reduce sanctions if he or she can establish to the satisfaction of the tribunal how the substance entered his/her system, demonstrate that he or she was not at fault or significant fault or in certain circumstances did not intend to enhance his or her sports performance. This means that the burden of proof is on the athlete.
- The principle of strict liability has been consistently upheld in the decisions of the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the Swiss Federal Court.